Teenage Nutrition – Adolescense is a period of transition between childhood and adult life. It stretches over a periodlong, between 13 and 20 years.
Both for boys and girls, it can be subdivided into twoperiods: one of 13 to 15 years, which usually coincides with puberty, and another,ranging from 16 to 20 years, the post-paternal period.
During this period, the individual goes through profound transformations.
An intensification of aall vital functions, physical development is done rapidly and also neuro-endocrine developmentand intellectual.
It represents a real metabolic “storm” and endocrine, which will all happenthe body’s activities.
The caloric needs amount to 3100 calories / day for boys aged 13 to 15,increasing to 3600 calories / day between 16 – 20 years and girls reaching 2800 calories / day between 13 – 15 years,up to 2500 calories / day between 16 and 20 years.
Relative to body weight, these are about 55-60calories / kg body / day in boys and 50 – 55 calories / kg body / day in girls.
Proteins represent 14-15% of the caloric rate of the day, ie 2g / kg body weight / day.
Of these with high biological value, of animal origin, that will cover about 60 -70% of the protein ration of the day.
Fats will account for about 30-35% of the calorie ration of the day, ie 2-3 g / kg body / day. 2/3of the total lipid intake of the day will be given in the form of animal fats, important for their intakeof the liposoluble vitamins, which it carries.
Glucids will cover about 55-60% of the calorie ration of the day, ie 8-10 g / kg bodyweight / day.
These will mainly be given in the form of cereal products, vegetables and fruits and lesssweets concentrated.In many teens, harmful practices in eating,with the tendency to quickly eat spicy foods, sandwiches, canned foods, steaks, avoiding vegetables,fruits, bread, pastries.
To some, there is a tendency to make unjustified weight loss treatments that lead tonutritional imbalances, digestive disorders.
Consumption of coffee and alcoholic beverages in quantitiesis a common habit at this age.
The adolescent suffers psychic transformations, which often contradict his entourage.
Conflicts with parents are based on misunderstandings about clothing, behavior, and even abouteating habits. The teenager only seldom listens to parents’ advice, so they dohe has to work with much patience and tact without feeling it.
Feeding during this period has a triple goal: Providing maintenance ration, supplythe ration for physical and intellectual effort and the provision of ration for growth and development.
Nutrition should be rich, varied, different from that of adults.
Proteins will be largely covered with meat, which should be given in quantities of 200-250g / day,milk about 500ml / day, cheeses 50-100g / day, eggs at least 1 / day.
Fats other than those contained in foods should be given as 20g butter per day,oil 20-30g / day.
Glucids will be covered from bread 300-350g / day, 50-100g / day pasta, 200-300g / day, other vegetables 300-400g / day, fruits 200-300g / day.
These are also important for theballast they contain to avoid constipation.
The carbohydrate ratio will be filled with sugar andsugary products, but will not be abused as it causes nutritional imbalances.
Nutrition should be sufficient in terms of both caloric and nutritional factors,depending on the activity, be varied, rich in meat, vegetables, fruits, dairy.
It will notmake excess flour, cooked fats, sausages or cans.
They will ban: coffee, tobacco,alcohol, spicy spices.
In periods of intense intellectual activity (exams, written works)
Besides the contribution of proteins with high biological value also take into account the contribution of some minerals: phosphorus,iodine, magnesium, calcium, with an important role in nervous system functions.
Calorie distribution will be done in 4-5 meals / day, which will be served at fixed hours. It will not be neglected in the morning, which must be quite consistent, considering thatthe greatest physical and mental stress is recorded during this time.
At this table it must beserve milk, cheese, eggs.
The evening meal will be served at least 2 hours before bedtime to ensure a quiet sleep.
The teenager retains his childhood skills in terms of behavior hygiene at the table.
Observing the rules of civilized behavior, which mustrepresent skills for the rest of his life.
Parents have a particularly important task, whichconsists of pursuing, helping, guiding the young who is still inadequately prepared to copeto all situations in life. Mistaken, uncontrolled and uncorrected habits about foodadolescents, may represent the early stages of degenerative chronic diseases such as:arteriosclerosis, obesity, diabetes mellitus and others.
Special attention will be paid to adolescents who are pregnant during this periodbreastfeeding, their food ration must be higher.
Example menu for a teenager.
In the morning:
– tea, intermediate bread with butter and gypsum mussels, jam
– Cheese with tomatoes, bread, fruit.
– Type 1
– the soup
– Type 2
– beef with cream, bread
– Type 3
– tart with cherry and mineral water.
Snack: – rice with milk and jamIn the evening:
– grilled steak with pepper and red pepper salad, nutmeg pudding